Gynecomastia, also known as male breast enlargement, is a disorder that can be seen in both breasts or in only one breast. Gynecomastia may lead to problems such as lack of self-confidence, introversion, and postural disorders, especially during adolescence. However, it is a condition that can be solved by surgery with permanent results. The plastic surgeon determines the method to be used in surgery by considering factors such as the degree of growth in breast tissue and sagging in breast skin. For the results obtained after gynecomastia surgery to be permanent, the patient should pay attention to his diet and avoid excessive weight gain.

What is gynecomastia?

Gynecomastia is the name given to abnormal and benign growth in the amount of breast tissue in men due to the imbalance of estrogen and testosterone hormones. This condition can sometimes affect one breast and sometimes both. Newborns, adolescent males, and elderly men can develop gynecomastia due to natural changes in hormone levels, while this condition can also occur for other unknown reasons.

Although it is usually not a serious health problem, dealing with gynecomastia can be psychologically challenging. Gynecomastia, which can cause breast pain in some men, may tend to improve spontaneously depending on the cause of its formation, while in some cases interventions such as medication or surgery are required.

What are the causes of gynecomastia?

Gynecomastia is usually caused by fluctuations in the level of the hormone testosterone. This condition can be associated with testosterone deficiency resulting from conditions that block the effects of testosterone, reduce it, or increase estrogen levels. Hormonal balance can be disrupted for a variety of reasons. Causes of gynecomastia may include natural hormone changes, medication, drug and alcohol use, complications related to health problems, and the use of certain herbal products and supplements.

The hormones testosterone and estrogen regulate sexual characteristics in both men and women. Testosterone regulates male characteristics such as muscle mass and body hair, while estrogen modulates feminine characteristics, including breast enlargement.

Although estrogen is generally considered a female hormone, it is also produced in very low amounts in men under normal conditions. Abnormal estrogen production or imbalanced estrogen production with testosterone can lead to gynecomastia.

Newborn male babies can be born with enlarged breast tissue due to their mother’s estrogen during pregnancy. This swelling usually disappears spontaneously within two to three weeks after birth.

Since adolescence is a period of constant hormone changes, the possibility of experiencing gynecomastia is quite common. Most gynecomastia cases in adolescence can resolve on its own without the need for treatment.

Among adults, especially between the ages of 50 to 69, the prevalence of gynecomastia begins to increase. Research shows that at least one in every four men in this age group exhibits symptoms of gynecomastia.

Some tumors affecting the testicles, adrenal glands, or pituitary gland can affect hormone production, disrupting the male-female hormone balance and leading to gynecomastia.

What are the symptoms of gynecomastia?

Symptoms of gynecomastia include swollen breast tissue and occasional sensitivity in the breast area. If swelling, pain, sensitivity, or any nipple discharge is observed, the individual is advised to consult a doctor as soon as possible.

How is gynecomastia diagnosed?

For the diagnosis of gynecomastia, the doctor first performs a physical examination and asks various questions to gather information about the medical history of the patient and his family. The patient should share the symptoms he is experiencing in detail with the doctor during the examination and provide information about other possible conditions or diseases.

In cases where gynecomastia is diagnosed, the doctor may recommend initial tests such as blood tests to determine the cause of the condition. Depending on the results of these tests, tests such as computed tomography scans, magnetic resonance imaging scans, testicular ultrasound, and tissue biopsy may be required for further evaluation.

In the process of gynecomastia, there are other conditions with symptoms like breast swelling. For example, fatty breast tissue caused by excessive fat accumulation is one of them. This is not the same as gynecomastia and requires a separate evaluation.

Although rare in men, the possibility of breast cancer should be considered in cases of unilateral breast enlargement or the presence of a solid mass in the breast.

In addition, conditions such as breast abscess, in which the breast tissue becomes infected, can also lead to breast enlargement. The doctor conducts a comprehensive evaluation for an accurate diagnosis.

How is gynecomastia surgery performed?

After the examination, the plastic surgeon decides which surgical method to choose for gynecomastia treatment. Factors such as the density of breast tissue, amount of adipose tissue, size of the breast, and degree of sagging are evaluated in this decision. In patients with sufficient skin elasticity, the plastic surgeon can address the problem with procedures around the nipple. If the skin is excessively sagging, the surgeon intervenes by making half-moon incisions under the nipple.

In the so-called tissue excision method, the doctor makes incisions on the patient’s areola and removes excess tissue and skin. Non-permanent scars may remain around the nipple when treated with this commonly preferred method.

Liposuction is another method frequently used in the treatment of gynecomastia. Liposuction is a surgical method aimed at removing excess fat tissue. The plastic surgeon empties the breast adipose tissue by entering through incisions made with thin cannulas. Vaser (ultrasonic) Liposuction method is generally preferred in the treatment of gynecomastia with Liposuction. In cases where fat and breast tissue coexist, tissue excision and liposuction methods can be combined. The patient can return home after the surgical intervention according to the conditions recommended by the doctor. The duration of the operation varies depending on the size of the breast and the methods used.

Gynecomastia surgery is performed under general anesthesia. It takes approximately 1-2 hours depending on the surgical method chosen.

Considerations before and after gynecomastia surgery

Before the operation, the patient should stop eating and water intake at least 6 hours before the operation. It is recommended avoid sun exposure for two weeks before the operation, as sunlight can cause permanent scars and sunburns on the skin. One week before the operation, the patient should not have any illnesses such as cold or urinary tract infections; in such cases, the patient must inform the doctor. The patient should share his medical history, such as past major health problems and regular medications, with the plastic surgeon who will perform the surgery. Smoking should be stopped at least three weeks before the surgery. As with any surgical intervention related to the breast, the patient should stop using blood thinners and vitamin supplements for at least 10 days before surgery.

After the surgery, the patient should avoid heavy lifting for at least 3 weeks and avoid movements such as squatting and bending. It is necessary to wear a body corset after the surgery according to the doctor’s recommendation, and this period usually lasts for 2-3 weeks. It is usually appropriate to take a shower 3 days after the operation. It is recommended that the patient lie flat for the first 3 days.

If the surgery was performed in summer, the patient should wait at least 1 week before swimming and be careful not to stay under sunlight for a long time. It is important to rest for 3 days after gynecomastia surgery and avoid excessive movement of the arms and shoulders for the healing process. The patient can return to work 3-4 days after the procedure. The patient can perform light exercises requiring mild exertion within 1-2 weeks after the operation. It is also important to use antibiotics recommended by the doctor to prevent postoperative complications.

Frequently asked questions about gynecomastia

How does gynecomastia go away?

Despite some non-surgical treatments, surgical intervention is the only way to correct gynecomastia. Gynecomastia surgery ensures the correction of feminine breast appearance by effectively and permanently removing excess breast tissue and fat.

Does gynecomastia surgery provide a permanent solution?

Gynecomastia surgery provides permanent results. During the operation, excess breast tissue and fat are removed, thus correcting the size and appearance of the breast. However, it is important to follow the proper care and instructions during the postoperative period. Nevertheless, the person’s lifestyle, hormone levels, and other factors may affect the post-operative results. Additionally, the possibility of a rare recurrence of gynecomastia, depending on the underlying causes, should also be considered. Although the success and of the surgery and permanence of outcomes vary for everyone, patient satisfaction is quite high in these surgeries.

Why is a gynecomastia compression vest used?

The gynecomastia compression vest is a medical product used after gynecomastia surgery. One of the most important aspects after surgery is the necessity of continuous use of this compression vest. This vest, which is very simple to use, should be worn immediately after the operation and should be worn continuously for the duration instructed by the doctor (usually 2-3 weeks). After the third week, it is recommended to wear it only during the day, especially during heavy activities. This period of use is usually about 6 weeks.

Can gynecomastia be treated without surgery?

Male breast enlargement, known as gynecomastia, is often treated with surgery to reduce breast tissue. Although some non-surgical options are available for treatment, they do not always guarantee to solve the problem. On the other hand, gynecomastia surgery offers a fast-acting solution and corrects the feminine appearance by removing excess breast tissue. Non-surgical treatment options may work for some men to reduce the breast appearance. However, many men with severe gynecomastia may find that these options are insufficient to correct excess tissue.

Gynecomastia surgery prices

‘Gynecomastia surgery costs’, ‘gynecomastia surgery in Ankara’, ‘gynecomastia surgery cost 2024’ are some of the most frequently asked questions by patients planning to have this operation. Many factors such as the city you are in, the hospital and the regions where the procedure will be performed affect the prices. You can get the necessary information from your plastic surgeon about gynecomastia surgery costs. For more detailed information on this subject, you can contact us by phone at (0536) 511 40 51 and by e-mail at